Three-dimensional renderings of the disk warp

The following figures show three-dimensional renderings of each of the m=0,...,3 response.  Clicking on an image should launch a vrml viewer (if configured).  I chose the orientation of the image to be "interesting". The virtual world will begin looking downward from the NGP.

The features in the figures and virtual worlds are as follows:

The outline box around the disk warp has been scaled to illustrate the shape of the warp.  The following table describes the units for each figure:

Response Vmin, Vmax (in kpc) Vertical scaling factor
m=0 -0.2, 0.4 5
m=1 -1.4, 1.4 5
m=2 -0.5, 0.5 10
m=3 -0.07, 0.07 10
total -1.1, 1.1 3

The amplitude is based on a 2.0×1010 M° for the LMC.  You can multiply by a mass factor (e.g. 0.5) if you want a smaller LMC mass.

m=0 response to satellite m=1 response to satellite
M=0 M=1
m=2 response to satellite m=3 response to satellite
M=2 M=3

Total response of disk
Response of disk to sum of m=0,...,3 components

Martin Weinberg <>
Last modified: Sat Nov 5 23:33:45 EST 2005